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From protectorates to proletariats to precariats


Dr. Tamaro J. Green

TJG News:

2021-05-04 02:47:36 viewed: 536


Colonial societies administered protectorates for land distribution to govern the land of colonies.  Selase, Jiang, and Worlanyo (2015) showed how protectorates in Africa declared lands as public and under the administration of the colonial governor.   The uneven distribution resonated through post-colonial societies and impedes agricultural production.  Kugbega (2020) described the importance of land access for agricultural production.  Dennison (2019) reviewed the problematic oversight of customary law transcribing legal pluralisms in colonial societies.  Venema (1994) described inefficiencies in the disbursement of funds for group ranches and grazing schemes where local customs were ignored.  Middle classes developed in post-colonial societies became part of the proletariats.  Standing (2015) explained the proletariat of the 20th century has similarities to a new class that is developing from global transformation in the 21st century, the precariat. The precariats represent an emerging class resulting from a disappearing middle class.  Chauvel, Bar Haim, Hartung, and Murphy (2021) discussed components of destabilizing middle classes in society such as collective insecurity, income stagnation, and mismatches between education and socioeconomic positions.





Chauvel, L., Bar Haim, E., Hartung, A., & Murphy, E. (2021). Rewealthization in twenty-first century Western countries: The defining trend of the socioeconomic squeeze of the middle class. The Journal of Chinese Sociology, 8(1), 4. doi:10.1186/s40711-020-00135-6

Dennison, D. (2019). The resonance of colonial era customary codes in contemporary Uganda. Pioneer in Peer-reviewed, 22.

Kugbega, S. K. (2020). State-customary interactions and agrarian change in Ghana. The case of Nkoranza traditional area. Land, 9(11). doi:10.3390/land9110458

Selase, A. E., Jiang, L. F., & Worlanyo, A. S. (2015). Land tenure system in the pre-colonial era. Ghana as the insight. International Journal of African and Asian Studies, 14.

Standing, G. (2015). The precariat and class struggle. RCCS Annual Review, 7.

Venema, B. (1994). Local management of common property. Theory and practice of the common pastures in Morocco. Bulletin de l'APAD, 8.



Dr. Tamaro Green is a computer science researcher and the founder of TJG Web Services.  TJG Web Services, LLC is a consulting firm in the field of information technology.  Dr. Green writes on topics of privacy, security, and ethics in information technology and computer science.

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